Aikido Glossary
           Deshi: (de: youngerbrother; shi: child) A student training under a master.
           Do: (way, path, method)
           Dojo: (do: way; jo: place) Place for training.
           Domo Arigato Gozaimasu/gozaimashita: Most polite form of thanks in
           present tense, past tense.
           Dori/Tori: (grab/ grasp)
           Dozo: (please, go ahead, begin)
           Eri: (collar)
           Furikaburu: (furi:to raise a weapon over the head; kaburu: to carry
           on or over the head) The movement of raising a ken or jo over the
           head to the position used for a downward strike.
           Futari-dori: (futari: two people; dori: hold, grasp) Two people
           holding nage.
           Gaeshi/Kaeshi: (turn, reverse)
           Gedan: (ge: lower; dan: level)
           Gi: (gi: clothes) In Japanese most often called dogi (do: way) or
           keikogi (keiko: training) A training outfit for martial arts.
           Gyaku-hanmi: (gyaku: opposite; han: half; mi: body) Uke and nage
           stand facing each other with the opposite foot forward: right/left
           or left/right.
           Ha: The edge of a sword
           Hai: (hai: yes)
           Hajime: (command) Begin.
           Hakama: Traditional Japanese pleated, skirt-like wide trousers.
           Hanmi: (han: half; mi: body) Aikido stance in which the front foot
           is pointing straight forward and the rear foot is at an approximate
           90 degree angle as in an upside-down T-shape. The same hip as the
           front foot and upper body are turned slightly sidewise to make the
           body a smaller target.
           Hanmi-handachi: (han: half; mi: body; han: half; dachi: standing)
           Uke is standing and nage is sitting (in seiza).
           Hantai: (opposite)
           Happo-giri: (ha-: eight; po: direction; giri: cut) Eight directional
           cut with the sword/bokken.
           Hara: (stomach) The lower region of the abdomen- the physical and
           spiritual center of youself. The point in which you focus and center
           your balance and awareness.
           Hayagaeshi: (haya: quick; gaeshi: turn) The turning movement usually
           from Tsuki No Kame and directly into yokomen uchi without stopping
           for the blocking position which is part of this transitional
           movement.
           Henka-waza: (henka: variation; waza: technique) Variation of a basic
           technique.
           Hidari: left
           Hiji: elbow
           Hito-e-mi: (hito: one; e: Japanese counting prefix; mi: body) An
           Aikido stance resembling hanmi but with the hips pulled further back
           to the side. Used in irimi-nage for instance.
           Hiza: knee
           Ho: (1): direction
           (2): method
           Irimi: (iri: entrance, enter; mi: body) Techniques in which nage
           places him/herself behind uke.
           Jiyu-waza: (jiyu: free; waza: technique) Type of practice where nage
           improvises, freely choosing the techniques to be used.
           Jo: (jo: staff) Wooden staff, usually approximately 1 1/2 meters long.
           Jodan: (jo: upper; dan: level)
           Jo-dori: (jo: staff; dori: grab, grasp) Techniques used to take the
           attackerís (uchiís) jo. Approximately 10 variations.
           Juken: (ju: gun; ken: sword) Rifle with bayonet.
           Kaicho: (kai: organization; cho: leader)
           Kaiso: (kaiso: founder of a style) Term used for O-sensei Ueshiba.
           Kaiten: (rotate, turn)
           Kaeshi-waza: (kaeshi: reverse, return; waza: technique) Counter technique.
           Kamae: ( kamae: stance) Aikido stance, encompassing an attitude of
           hightened mental awareness and readiness to unleash techniques.
           Kakari-geiko: (kakari: to attack or swarm over; geiko/keiko:
           practice) Attackers (uke) in a row attack one after the other.
           Kansetsu: (joint)
           Kao: (face)
           Karada: (body)
           Kata: (1) Shoulder (2) Predetermined sequence of movements. Used to
           learn techniques and principles
           in Aikido weapons practice
           Katana: Japanese sword.
           Katate: (kata: one; te: hand) One-handed grab.
           Katame-waza: (katame: to hold or pin; waza: technique) Techniques
           ending in a hold.
           Keiko: ( actual meaning: to study old things) Training/ practice.
           Ken: Japanese sword.
           Ken-tai-jo: ( ken: sword; tai: against; jo: staff) A series of
           weapon techniques using the jo to defend against a sword/bokken.
           Ki: ( ki: energy, spirit, intention) The vital life-force of the body.
           Kiai: (ki: energy,spirit, intention; ai: harmony) A powerful yell or
           shout originating from the pit of the abdomen, used to unleash
           physical and spiritual energy from the body.
           Kihon: (ki: important, valuable; hon: basic) Basic techniques.
           Ki-musubi: ( ki: energy, spirit, intention; musubi: to tie together,
           to bind) The feeling of becoming one with the intentions and
           movements of your opponent.
           Ki-musubi no Tachi: ( ki: energy, spirit, intention; musubi: to tie
           together, to bind; no: belonging to; tachi: sword)) The sixth
           kumi-tachi (paired sword practice in Aikido). Also known as Otonashi
           no Ken: The Sword of No Sound. This practice is based on the feeling
           of ki-musubi.
           Ki no Nagare: (ki: energy, spirit, intention; no: belonging to;
           nagare: flow) Advanced type of training using flowing movements.
           Kohai: (ko: behind, after; hai: colleague) Fellow junior practitioner.
           Kokyu: (kokyu: breath) Coordination of breath, energy and body movement.
           Komi: (-komi: thoroughly,decisevly, strongly) A suffix used to express a thoroughly
           completed or a strong    action or movement. As in
           uchikomi: uchi: strike; komi: strong or decisive.
           Kokyu-ryoku: (kokyu: breath; ryoku: power) The power gained through
           kokyu training.
           Koshi: (hip)
           Kotai: (change) Command, given when for instance attacker and  defender are to change roles.
           Kote: (ko: small; te: hand) Wrist.
           Kubi: (neck)
           Kuden: (ku: oral; den: convey, transmit) The oral teachings of
           Ueshiba used to explain important points in Aikido techniques.
           Kumi-tachi: (kumi: to unite, group; tachi: sword) Advanced partner
           practice with the sword/bokken encompassing 5 basic forms plus
           variations.
           Kumi-jo: (kumi: to unite, group; jo: staff) Advanced partner
           practice with the jo encompassing 10 basic forms.
           Kuro-obi: (kuro: black; obi: belt)
           Kuzushi: (kuzushi: to break) The movement used to unbalance your
           opponent.
           Kyu: (kyu: student level) Student level, in Aikido beginning at 6th
           kyu and advancing to 1st kyu toward 1st dan.
           Ma-ai: (ma: distance; ai: harmony) The proper distance between nage
           and uke.
           Mawatte: (mawatte: turn, turn back) Command used when practitioners
           should turn and
           move in the opposite direction.
           Me: (me: eye)
           Men: (men: face, head)
           Menkyo kaiden: (menkyo: license, diploma; kai: everything, den:
           convey, transmit) Highest diploma representing the acquisition of
           all the techniques in a given martial art system.
           Migi: (migi: right)
           Mo ikkai: (mo: again; ikkai: one time) Command: Do it again.
           Mo ichido: ( mo: again; ichi: one; do: time) Same as above.
           Mudansha: ( mu: none; dan: level; sha: person) Person not graded to
           black belt.
           Moku-roku: (moku: eye; roku: document) A document or diploma
           including technical explanations given in traditional martial art
           systems.
           Mune (muna-): (chest, chest area)
           Mushin: (mu: nothing; shin: spirit) The state of no thought stived
           for in martial arts; a feeling of being able to react instinctively.
           Musubi: ( musubi: to tie, bind) The same as ki-musubi: The feeling
           of becoming one with the intentions and movements of your opponent.
           Nage: (1) (nage: throw) Aikido throwing technique.
           (2) In Aikido, the person performing the technique.
           Nagare: (nagare: flow)
           Ni-nin gake: (ni: two; nin: person, gake: attack) Two uke attacking nage.
           Obi: (obi: belt)
           Omote: (omote: front)
           Omoto-kyo: ( o: great; moto: foundation; kyo: belief) The name of
           the Shinto group lead by Onisaburo Deguchi,the most important source
           of spiritual inspiriation for O-sensei Ueshiba.
           Onegaishimasu: (o-negai: wish; shimasu: verb conjugation) Japanese
           standard expression when requesting or wishing for something. Used
           for instance at the beginning of practice or for requesting someone
           to practice with you.
           O-sensei: (o: great; sensei: teacher, master) Morihei Ueshiba,
           founder of Aikido (1883-1969). Also called Kaiso: founder.
           Osae-waza: (osae: lock; waza: technique) Techniques ending in a lock.
           Owari/owarimasu:(owari: finish, end; masu: verb conjugation)Command
           used to indicate the end of a training session for instance.
           Oyo-waza: (oyo: application; waza: technique) Variations of basic
           techniques in advanced training. The practical usage of Aikido
           techniques in a more self-defense based context.
           Randori: (ran: disorder; dori: grab, grasp) Free style,
           improvisational practice with several
           attackers, where the types of attack are not predetermined.
           Rei: (rei: bow, thanks, politeness) Command used in Budo: bow.
           Reigi: (rei: bow, thanks, politeness; gi: rule, ceremony) Correct
           behaviour in as well as outside of the dojo. Also called : reishiki
           ( shiki: ceremony).
           Renshu: (ren: to discipline, shu: study) Training, practice.
           Renzoku: (ren: to bring with; zoku: to continue) One after the
           other, continuous.
           Riai: (ri: logic, reason; ai: harmony) The common principals in
           Aikido connecting empty-handed techniques, sword and staff.
           Ryu: (ryu: school, flow) A prefix meaning of a certain style in Budo
           context.
           San-nin dori: (san: three; nin: person; dori: grab, grasp) Three
           attackers holding nage.
           San-nin gake: (san: three; nin: person; gake: attack) Three people
           attacking nage.
           Saya: (saya: sword sheath)
           Sempai: (sem: in front, before; pai/hai: colleague) Fellow senior
           practitioner.
           Sensei: (sen: before, in front; sei: to be born, live)
           Teacher/master: one who is born before you.
           Seiza: (sei: correct; za: seat, sit) The traditional Japanese way of
           sitting on your knees.
           Shihan: (shi: teacher; han: example) A representative of a Budo
           system, graded 6th dan or higher.
           Shiho: (shi: four; ho: direction)
           Shiho-giri: (shi: four; ho: direction; giri: cut) Practice of
           cutting in four directions with the sword.
           Shiho-tsuki: (shi: four; ho: direction; tsuki: thrust) Practice of
           thrusting with the jo in four directions.
           Shikko: (knee walking)
           Shime/-jime: (shime: to squeeze, strangle)
           Shisei: (shi: form, appearance; sei: power) Posture.
           Shiro-obi: (shiro: white; obi: belt)
           Shomen (1): (sho: correct; men: front) The wall in the dojo towards
           which you bow before starting practice, usually where there is a
           picture of O-sensei.
           Shomen (2): (sho: correct; men: face, front) The face or head.
           Sode: (sode: sleeve)
           Sode-guchi: (sode: sleeve; guchi/kuchi: mouth) The opening of the
           sleeve.
           Soto: (soto: outside)
           Soto-deshi: (soto: outside; deshi: student) Student who lives
           outside of the dojo, not a live-in student.
           Suburi: (su: origin; buri: to swing a sword or staff) A basic strike
           or thrust with a jo or bokken.
           Suki: (suki: opening) An opening or weak point in a technique which
           leaves you open to a counter-attack.
           Suwari-waza: (suwari: sit; waza: technique) Seated techniques,
           performed in seiza.
           Tachi-dori: (tachi: sword; dori: grab, grasp) Empty-handed
           techniques defending against sword attacks. Approximately 10 variations.
           Tai: (tai: body)
           Tai-jutsu: (tai: body; jutsu: technique) Empty-handed Aikido
           techniques.
           Tai no Henko : ( tai: body: no: belonging to; henko: to turn around)
           Basic practice in turning 180 degrees while uke is grabbing nageís
           wrist.
           Tai sabaki: (tai: body; sabaki: to move, evade) Movements off the
           line of attack.
           Takemusu Aiki: (take: martial; musu: to give birth to; ai: harmony;
           ki: energy, spirit, intention) A term used by O-sensei to describe
           the most advanced level of practice in Aikido: the spontaneous use
           and creation of techniques through a complete understanding of the basic principals.
           Taninzu gake: (taninzu: a group of people; gake: attack) A group of
           people attacking nage; the same as randori.
           Tanren Uchi: ( tan: to forge,train; ren; to practice; uchi: strike)
           The practice of striking a tire with a suburi bokken in order to
           obtain hip strength and to learn to unleash power at a maximum.
           Tanren is also used in for instance "Yokomen no Tanren", the
           practice of striking yokomen with the hand while your partner blocks
           the strike.
           Tanto: (tan: short; to: sword) Knife.
           Tanto-dori: (tan: short; to: sword, dori: grab, grasp) Knife
           disarming techniques.
           Tegatana: (te: hand; k/gatana: sword) The edge of the hand.
           Tsuba: (tsuba: sword guard) The small disc-like decorative object